Lipid peroxidation is a process in which oxidative damage occurs to fats (lipids) in our bodies. As fats form the basis of the cell membrane in the human body, damage to their structure can lead to the deterioration of the cell membrane. Lipid peroxidation of cell membrane fats changes the integrity and the structure of the cell membrane, which leads to a change in their permeability (Catalá et al. 2016). Also, such damaged fats can further form toxic products that can further damage proteins and nucleic acids, which are an integral part of DNA (Gaschler et al. 2017).
Karnozin extra has been a proven supplement that can prevent lipid peroxidation due to the very rich content of antioxidants.
Lipid peroxidation is a process involved in the development of many diseases, including atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer’s disease), diabetes, and even COVID-19.
A recently published study of 108 patients suffering from COVID-19 showed that lipid peroxidation is significantly related to the severity of the disease. That is, the more severe the case of a patient with COVID-19, the higher the level of lipid peroxidation in his body. The study showed that a higher degree of lipid peroxidation was associated with a higher risk of intubation and death on day 28 in COVID-19 patients (Martín-Fernández et al. 2021).
Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of plaques that mostly consist of fat in blood vessels (so-called atherosclerosis plaques). Atherosclerosis is one of the key factors in the development of cardiovascular diseases, such as myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, heart failure, and stroke (Frostegård et al, 2013). A key step in the development of atherosclerosis is lipid peroxidation, which results in the formation of toxic products that will damage cholesterol-carrying particles (LDL particles).
One of the main “targets” of oxidative stress is the brain. The reason for this is that the brain consumes 20-30% of inhaled oxygen, and also contains a large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. When free radicals “attack” these polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipid peroxidation occurs. A large number of studies have shown that damage caused by the action of free radicals plays an important role in the process of neurodegenerative diseases (Lovell et al, 2007; Sultana et al, 2010; Martínez et al, 2010). Thus, markers of lipid peroxidation were found to be elevated in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Hutington’s disease, and Down syndrome (Butterfield et al 2010; Lee, 2011; Ruipérez et al, 2010; Sajdel-Sulkowska et al, 1984; Shichiri et al, 2011).
Diabetes is another disease where a significant relationship between markers of lipid peroxidation and the disease has been observed. Additionally, when diabetes is associated with disorders of lipid status in the body, such a combination also leads to an increase in markers of inflammation in the body. The resulting inflammations are associated with diabetes complications (de Souza Bastos et al, 2016).
Karnozin Extra is a carefully formulated combination of antioxidants that contains:
These natural antioxidants have a strong capacity to defend against free radicals and thus against lipid peroxidation. Recently, Carnomed conducted an analysis where we compared the recommended dose of alpha-lipoic acid (100mg) regarding the suppression of lipid peroxidation. The results of this analysis show the undoubted advantage of Karnozin Extra over alpha-lipoic acid in the compared doses. The graph in Figure 1 below shows the up to three times stronger effect of Karnozin Extra on suppressing lipid peroxidation compared to alpha-lipoic acid.
Figure 1. Suppression of lipid peroxidation by Karnozin Extra (blue) and alpha-lipoic acid (orange)
Lipid peroxidation is a process that characterizes many diseases, including COVID-19. Alpha-lipoic acid is a universal antioxidant recommended in the treatment of COVID-19. However, Karonozin Extra in a dose of three capsules per day has a much more pronounced antioxidant capacity compared to 100 mg of alpha-lipoic acid.
Butterfield, D. A., Lange, M. L. B., & Sultana, R. (2010). Involvements of the lipid peroxidation product, HNE, in the pathogenesis and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, 1801(8), 924-929.
Catalá A, Díaz M. Editorial: Impact of Lipid Peroxidation on the Physiology and Pathophysiology of Cell Membranes. Front Physiol. 2016 Sep 22;7:423. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00423. PMID: 27713704; PMCID: PMC5031777.
de Souza Bastos, A., Graves, D. T., de Melo Loureiro, A. P., Júnior, C. R., Corbi, S., Frizzera, F., Scarel-Caminaga, R. M., Câmara, N. O., Andriankaja, O. M., Hiyane, M. I., & Orrico, S. (2016). Diabetes and increased lipid peroxidation are associated with systemic inflammation even in well-controlled patients. Journal of diabetes and its complications, 30(8), 1593–1599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2016.07.011
Gaschler MM, Stockwell BR. Lipid peroxidation in cell death. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017 Jan 15;482(3):419-425. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.10.086. Epub 2017 Feb 3. PMID: 28212725; PMCID: PMC5319403.
Frostegård J. (2013). Immunity, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. BMC medicine, 11, 117. https://doi.org/10.1186/1741-7015-11-117
Martín-Fernández, M., Aller, R., Heredia-Rodríguez, M., Gómez-Sánchez, E., Martínez-Paz, P., Gonzalo-Benito, H., Sánchez-de Prada, L., Gorgojo, Ó., Carnicero-Frutos, I., Tamayo, E., & Tamayo-Velasco, Á. (2021). Lipid peroxidation as a hallmark of severity in COVID-19 patients. Redox biology, 48, 102181. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.102181
Martínez, A., Portero‐Otin, M., Pamplona, R., & Ferrer, I. (2010). Protein targets of oxidative damage in human neurodegenerative diseases with abnormal protein aggregates. Brain pathology, 20(2), 281-297.
Lee, J., Kosaras, B., Del Signore, S. J., Cormier, K., McKee, A., Ratan, R. R., … & Ryu, H. (2011). Modulation of lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial function improves neuropathology in Huntington’s disease mice. Acta neuropathologica, 121(4), 487-498.
Lovell, M. A., & Markesbery, W. R. (2007). Oxidative DNA damage in mild cognitive impairment and late-stage Alzheimer’s disease. Nucleic acids research, 35(22), 7497-7504.
Ruipérez, V., Darios, F., & Davletov, B. (2010). Alpha-synuclein, lipids and Parkinson’s disease. Progress in lipid research, 49(4), 420-428.
Sajdel-Sulkowska, E. M., & Marotta, C. A. (1984). Alzheimer’s disease brain: alterations in RNA levels and in a ribonuclease-inhibitor complex. Science, 225(4665), 947-949.
Shichiri, M., Yoshida, Y., Ishida, N., Hagihara, Y., Iwahashi, H., Tamai, H., & Niki, E. (2011). α-Tocopherol suppresses lipid peroxidation and behavioral and cognitive impairments in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 50(12), 1801-1811.
Sultana, R., & Butterfield, D. A. (2010). Role of oxidative stress in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 19(1), 341-353.